Should Wolves be Reintroduced to the Adirondacks? Are they already here?
Wolves of Isle Royale National Park

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Zeebie by Jesse Gigandet
Zeebie by Jesse Gigandet

Wolves, Humans, Dogs and Civilization, by Steve Hall

What is the "Wolf Gathering" at the Adirondack Wildlife Refuge?

Formerly called the "Wolf Walk"

Would you like to learn all about wolves, and their roles in nature? Every day at around 10 am, except Tuesdays and Wednesdays when the Refuge is closed, Steve and Alex enter the half acre wolf enclosure, and visitors watch as one of us interacts with the wolves, while the other delivers an entertaining and educational narrative, which sheds light on many aspects of wolves lives:

Why are wolves called "keystone predators", and how do they control wild mammals like beaver, deer, moose, elk and caribou? Are wolves ruthless killers as they are sometimes portrayed in Hollywood movies, or are they a family-oriented predator, whose tendency is to remove the very old, very young, the sick, and the lame from their target species? Do wolves damage the species they hunt, or strengthen them, by eliminating animals who may breed weakness and vulnerability into the species, as wolves try to earn a living, in that beautiful, but difficult and unforgiving environment we call Nature? How do wolves patrol and defend their territories, and what exactly is a wolf "pack"? Where do dogs come from, why do they display the behavior that they do, and why did we end up with dogs as "man's best friend"? What kind of wolves live in the Adirondacks? Are wolves dangerous to people, and how did the return of wolves to Yellowstone affect the Park's ecosystem, as well as Yellowstone tourism?

The Wolf Gathering lasts about an hour and a half, and is fairly detailed, but if you are interested in wolves, or want to photograph a wolf up close, without leashes or collars, or just want to enjoy a casual walk along the beautiful Wolf Walk trail, which will take you to enclosures for bobcats and lynx, fox, bald eagles and other Adirondack birds of prey, you'll enjoy the "Wolf Gathering". We used to have visitors call ahead and register for what we then called the "Wolf Walk", but with the wolves in their new large enclosure, we can accomodate many more visitors, and everyone gets the same clear field of vision, standing outside the enclosure, watching the wolves eat, play and run around, and making photography much more rewarding. There is no set fee for admission to the Refuge, but keeping in mind that the Refuge is a nonprofit, which is supported mainly by visitors donations, most visitors, if they find the experience enriching and educational, make some kind of donation, typically $20 to $50. If you have questions call us at 855-Wolf-Man (855-965-3626) or 914-772-5983. Both numbers hit Steve's cell,  but try not to call between 10 and 11:30 am, as I'll be with the wolves and unable to take your call. Steve Hall

Wolves, Ravens and Crows
Public Land Use Ranching Politics What We eat

Kiska & Zeebie, by April SeneyKiska & Zeebie, by Alex HallKiska & Zeebie, by Tammy Janke
Come meet Kiska, Great Plains Wolf Pup, at the Adirondack Wildlife Refuge!
Kiska, a 4 year old omega wolf by Terry Hawthorne
Kiska by Terry Hawthorne

The Wolf De-Listing Debate: What They Will Not Tell You! Steve Hall

Cree by Bill Woodall
Cree, by Bill Woodall

Rewilding the Adirondacjs

Wolves as Keystone predators

Few animals have been as romanticized and vilified as wolves have, but after five decades of collecting data and studying wolves in the wilds of Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior, researchers Durward Allen, Rolf Peterson, L. David Mech, John Vucetich and their teams, have greatly enriched our understanding of wolves. Isle Royale is a 200 square mile island in Lake Superior, about 15 miles from the international shore-line boundary where Minnesota meets Ontario. Moose swam to Isle Royale about 100 years ago, and wolves wandered across the ice from the mainland about 50 years later, during a bitterly cold Winter. Warming climate has made it unlikely that more wolves will be crossing over any time soon, so Isle Royale sits out in Superior as a perfect natural laboratory, enabling the longest continuous study of predator-prey relationships in the history of modern science.

The core of a wolf pack consists of the breeding male and female, who generally turn out to be “Mom” and “Dad”, and the pups of the year, who, following the mating in February, are born about 60 days later, towards the end of April or in early May. The other members of the pack are usually older siblings from the two previous years, which are physically mature in terms of size by the time they are 8 or 9 months old, but not sexually mature until sometime between their second and third year. Throw in the occasional outsider absorbed or dispersed from another pack, and you have a wolf pack, curiously similar in structure to a human family.

Older siblings, along with Mom and Dad, protect the pups of the year, and offspring can obtain food by approaching, and nuzzling or licking the muzzle of any grown wolf, which then regurgitates undigested food. Pups begin exploring and wandering from the den after 4 weeks, and, as use of the den lessens, and the pups begin weaning, they are led to kill sites to feed and begin learning the ways of adults. This happens at about 4 months of age, and these "rendevous sites" become the gathering spots for the family.

At sexual maturity, wolves disperse from their packs, seeking to fill a position in another pack, or find an area where the pressure from resident, territory defending packs is diminished, and where they may start their own pack with a dispersing or wandering member of the opposite sex. This leads some young wolves to disperse up to 600 miles away from their natal pack, and explains how wolves spill over into adjoining areas, such as Minnesota wolves spreading to Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan.  Now and then, the over-abundance of prey animals will result in larger packs, where more than one pair of wolves is mating.
Based on computerized skull measurements, wolf taxonomist Ron Nowak distinguishes about 5 North American wolf subspecies, the Arctic, Mexican, Great Plains, Northwestern, and the Eastern Timber wolf, examples of which can be seen in Algonquin Park, west of Ottawa. Your average male wolf is about 90 pounds, with northern wolves slightly heavier, due to natural selection rewarding larger body mass, and its heat retention capability. Cree, a wolf hybrid, of about 75% pure wolf, is 110 lbs., while Zeebie, a full wolf and an example of a Great Plains wolf, is about 100 lbs. The eastern coyote, which we call "coywolves", and is variously called the Adirondack wolf, brush wolf and coydog, is genetically an eastern wolf-coyote hybrid, which explains why it tends to be larger than its western cousin.

Loyalty within the wolf pack is strong, and while you may observe much dominant posturing, snarling and growling by Cree, the gray male, born in 2006, in the role of older brother, and correspondingly submissive behavior by Zeebie, the younger black male, born in 2009, there is no actual violence. Look for Cree to carry himself upright, with his tail slightly cocked and raised in these encounters, and for Zeebie to approach Cree with a lowered posture, with tail down or tucked, while attempting to lick Cree’s muzzle in a sign of deference.
Wolves lead very dangerous and risk-prone lives, and any wild wolf is fortunate to reach its fifth birthday. In captivity, with food removed as a daily concern, wolves will live ten to 17 years, much like your dog. Starvation is the number one killer of wolves in the wild, and of predators generally. Other factors include attacks by other wolf packs, usually involving territory infringement and competition for prey, or being injured or killed by intended prey, as when a wolf chooses to attack an underestimated moose under the wrong circumstances. Legal hunting and poaching by man is another major factor in many areas.

The starvation factor is most difficult for us to appreciate, as we live in a culture that provide safety nets, such as medical care, life insurance, unemployment, welfare, savings accounts, etc.  In other words, whether I'm a great provider, or merely an adequate provider, I am protected against the strains of periods when I am less able to provide for my family. While some predators, like foxes and goshawks may cache food, generally speaking, if you're a wolf or other predator, and you follow 8 months of successful hunting with several months of poor hunting, you and your family will likely starve. By definition then, any predator that so much as survives through a given year, is not only a good hunter, but a great hunter, or being supported by a great hunter.

Diseases like parvo virus and distemper take their toll, as do parasitic critters like the mite that causes mange. With respect to wolves from one pack killing trespassers from other packs, or transient wolves passing through a territory at the wrong place and time, breeders may kill 3 or 4 wolves from other packs during their lifetime. Because of frequent turnover in the pack, there are times when an outsider may enter the territory at the right time, and become incorporated into the pack. Wolves also eliminate competition, by killing smaller predators, such as coyotes and foxes, when they encounter them, which enables a larger number of smaller prey animals for the wolves to take.

Incidentally, something to ponder when considering the proposed reintroduction of  wolves to the Adirondack Park: as of 2010, there are an estimated 800 moose within the Park's 9,400 square miles, compared with 500 moose within Isle Royale's 200 square miles. And while moose numbers seem to be increasing at an accelerated clip, there are, on the other hand, probably 80,000 white-tailed deer within the park. Wolves are keystone predators, who alter the ecosystems in which they live. When wolves were introduced out west, into Yellowstone Park, Idaho and Montana, they may have eliminated half the western coyote population, and a good percentage of an increasing beaver population, within their territories. Gray wolves kill mesopredators (like coyotes) to eliminate competition for smaller game. But according to DNA studies, the eastern coyote is part wolf, thus accounting for its enhanced size, but the wolf component is mainly eastern wolf, like those found in Algonquin Park, and closely related to the red wolf, which is being reintroduced into the Carolinas with mixed success. This is because the red wolves are interbreeding with local coyotes.

While there is very limited livestock within the Adirondack Park itself, there are livestock farms outside the Park, and the spreading of wolves through dispersal would probably necessitate the control of wolves through hunting, an idea unpopular with many pro-wolf groups, who would prefer no wolves to a recovering wolf population subjected to hunting. Compromise may be a prerequisite to any wolf reeintroduction. David Mech has a 2006 paper, Wolf Restoration to the Adirondacks, and there's a ten year old study on wolf restoration from the Conservation Biology Institute at wolf-reintroduction-feasibility-in-the-adirondack.

Wolf packs defend territories ranging in size from 20 square miles to 2000 square miles, depending on the amount of prey of varying sizes available within their territory, the number of wolves in the pack, and the pressure of adjoining packs defending their territories. Howling is an important means of communication among wolves, both within the pack, for example, to identify location viz a viz another pack member, or as a pack bonding activity, and between neighboring packs, as a means of avoiding confrontations by indicating a pack’s current location. While the packs cover large territories, the boundaries of these territories are somewhat fluid, so, to avoid confrontations with neighboring packs, the pack may only enter the fringe buffer zone in pursuit of prey.

Breeding wolves continually mark their territories by "RLU", raised-leg urination, in males, and “FLU”, flex-Leg urination in females, while submissive wolves, male or female, perform "SQUs", or urinations by squatting. Defecating is another form of marking, as is vigorously scratching the ground with the front paws, which opens the scent glands between their toes, thus leaving their scent as a warning to tresspassers. You will notice on the wolf walk, that Cree growls when covering the scent spot of an unwelcome tresspasser, like a coywolf, black bear or a dog he does not like. When wolves roll in a scent, it may be a way of carrying information of some discovery back to the pack, so that the pack can decide whether to visit and perhaps appropriate the source of the odor.

On Isle Royale, the principal prey of the wolf are moose, and over the fifty years of the study, the number of resident moose on the island, has ranged between the 500 surveyed in 2009, to a high of 2,500 in 1998, while the number of wolves varied from a dozen to 50, with average being about 20 wolves spread over 2 or 3 packs. In 2010, there were 19 wolves comprising 2 packs, whereas in 2009, there were 22 wolves in 5 packs, in addition to a couple of "floaters", loners who lead furtive lives, scavenging at the edges of territories, either avoiding resident packs, or cautiously trying to assimilate into one pack or another. In 2010, there was estimated to be 510 moose. You may follow the annual reports and articles from Isle Royale at

While wolf predation is an important contributing factor, particularly when moose numbers are down and wolf numbers are up, moose are also affected by over-browsing of balsam fir, hot summers, deep winter snow, which affects the ability of moose to move around more so than it affects wolves, the amount of infestation by ticks, as well as the mite that causes mammalian mange. Another serious problem for an animal that in maturity consumes an average of five tons of vegetation per year. is the gradual deterioration and breakdown of tooth and jaw. While half of all moose over ten years old, sooner or later develop arthritis, a recent important study by Peterson found a correlation between earlier onset of arthritic joints in moose born to undernourished cows. The average lifespan of moose on Isle Royale is 12 years for bulls and 16 for cows, with 20 being the record.

Wolves are affected by starvation, mange, distemper, introduced diseases like parvo virus and inbreeding caused by the fact that the entire wolf population can trace its ancestry to a single female that was one of the first wolves to migrate across the ice from Canada. There has been debate whether to release some unrelated wild wolves on Isle Royale, as an attempt to encourage genetic diversity.

The wolves tend to take mainly older, arthritic or otherwise infirm moose, as well as bulls weakened by exhaustion and the injuries they often sustain during the autumn rut. Calves are another important target, but in 2009, no calves were taken during the winter, there being an abundance of older moose. Once moose reach the age of two, and particularly when they reach the breeding age of five, and until they are nine or ten, they are less vulnerable to wolf attack, representing as they do, a very dangerous target..

A mature moose in the prime of life weighs anywhere from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds, and is quite capable of defending itself with kicks and, in the case of bulls between May and November, swings of those enormous antlers, so the pack is wary of attacking such an animal, and may test the same moose many times over a period of years, before deciding the moose is one day vulnerable enough to risk an attack. The correlation between the numbers of wolves and moose can have a generationally delayed affect. For example, if over browsing leads to malnutrition in moose calves, which live shorter lives because of earlier onset of arthritis, this will initially provide wolves with greater numbers of older, potential prey animals. In turn, the wolf pups, less apt to starve, survive and breed, but their offspring are then subject to fewer older moose to prey on, causing wolf numbers to crash.

In nature, all events, processes and players are connected. We highly recommend "The Wolf's Tooth", by Christina Eisenberg, which describes the role of predators in "trophic cascades". Wolves are "apex predators", meaning top of the food chain predators, in much the same way as are  loons, fishers and coywolves in the Adirondacks. Wolves are also "keystone" predators, meaning that their impact in a given ecosystem, will have ramifications far beyond the animals they prey on. For example, who suspected that the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park would improve the survivability of trout?

Before wolves were reintroduced, elk tended to congregate around the streams, lakes and rivers in Yellowstone, over browsing cottonwoods and willows, while trampling other streamside vegetation, causing erosion, thus making creeks broader and shallower, cutting down the shade which helps keep water at the cooler temperatures trout prefer. As a consequence of wolves reducing elk numbers , creekside vegetation has somewhat recovered, helping the trout, but also, with trees being left to mature, providing nesting sites for song birds, and food, along with den and dam building materials, for the reintroduced beaver, whose numbers increased, even though they are occasionally taken by wolves.

Even pronghorn antelope were helped by the return of wolves to Yellowstone. Cougars and coyotes both prey on pronghorns, with the latter adept at finding young pronghorns. While an individual cougar can handle an individual wolf, the fact that cougars run into groups of wolves makes them reluctant to come down out of the hill country. And while wolves eliminate many of  the coyotes within their territories, but have so far not yet focused on pronghorn calves as coyotes do, pronghorns have increased since the wolf's reintroduction.

<>Steve Hall, left, with editing help and suggestions from Dave Mech, right.

Steve with Dave Mech, Aprl 2014


Wolf Reintro Impact on Yellowstone Tourism Study

How Did We Get Dogs From Wolves? Steve Hall

Scientific American , June 2015: How Wolf Became Dog, Very Interesting

Predator Defense Website
Wolf Spotters in the Lamar Valley Sept. 2012
Wof Watchers in the Lamar Valley in Yellowstone.
Wapiti wolf pack north of High Tower, Nov 2018
Wapiti Wolf Pack, Yellowstone between Petrified Tree and Roosevelt Tower, bison unconcerned, by Steve Hall, Nov 2017
Wapiti Pack by Steve Hall, Nov 2017
Wapiti Pack by Steve Hall, Nov 2017
Lamar Valley Pack Alpha female Sept 2012Lamar Valley Alpha female Sept 2012
Lamar Canyon Pack, alpha female, Sept 2012 by Steve Hall
Gray wolf from Lamar Canyon Pack in Yellowstone, May 2018, by Steve Hall
Gray wolf, Lamar Canyon pack, May 2018, by Steve Hall

The Co-Evolution of Wolves and Humans
Wolfgang M. Schleidt/Michael D. Shalter

Zeebie by Alex HallZeebie, by Julie Clark, Nov 2013
Zeebie by Alex Hall, left, and by Julie Clark, right
Alex with Zeebie and Cree
Zeebie, left, and Cree, with Alex

Alex & ZeebieAlex, Cree & ZeebieAlex with the wolves
Alex romps with our resident wolves, Cree, Zeebie and Kiska

Alex with Zeebie on the wolf walk in SeptAlex with Zeebie on the wolf walk in Sept
Alex with Zeebie on the "Wolf Walk" in September 2010.

layman's intro to the moose
Zeebie & Cree with those crocodile expressionsBut Mom, I want to go play!
Click on images to enlarge... Wendy with Zeebie and Cree.

Wendy and Zeebie
Choir Practice
"Choir Practice", Pastel by Wendy

Economic Value of Wolves to the adirondacks

Information on Adirondack Black Bears

Hey, I'm cuddling here!
Watch the glasses, Cree!

"We humans fear the beast within the wolf,
 because we do not understand the beast within ourselves." Gerald Hausman

Cree & Steve by Brenda Dadds Woodward
Cree and Steve, in the meadow on the wolf walk, by Brenda Dadds Woodward

One evening an old Cherokee told his grandson about a battle that goes on inside people. He said, "My son, the battle is between two wolves inside us all.

One is Evil. It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego.

The other is Good. It is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith."

The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather: "Which wolf wins?"

The old Cherokee simply replied, "The one you feed.”

Cree, pastel by WendyCree
Pastels of Cree by Wendy

Economic Value of Wolves out West

Zeebie & Alex by Julie Clark
Zeebie & Alex, by Julie Clark. Nov 2013, at the Wildlife Refuge

Cree Leaps at Zeebie held aloft

Cree Leaps at Alex and Zeebie, from July 2010

How wolves helped Humans enable civilization
How Wolves Helped Humans Create Dogs and Enable Civilization.
the whole presentation, by Steve Hall, by Jason Pare.

International Wolf CenterWolf Conservation Center
Great places to visit, and great web sites for learning more aboiut wolves

Wolves by Brian HeinzDavid Mech: Howl in the heartlandDavid Mech: The WolfWolf Wars, by Hank FischerThe Arctic Wolf by Dave MechCarter Neimeyer - Wolfer
Rolf Peterson: Wolves of Isle RoyaleCandy Peterson: View from the Wolf's Eye
Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and ConservationDoug Smith: Decade of the Wolf, Return to Yellowstone.James Halfpenny: Yellowstone Wolves in the Wild
Where the Wild Things Wereby Christina EisenbergThe Carnivore Way, by Cristina EisenbergAmerican Wolf by Nate Blakeslee

What are we reading?.... Great reading about wolves & ecosystems, for kids....and adults
Click on book for Amazon link.

Cristina Eisenberg with Steve & WendyCristina Eisenberg, Keynote at AHA Day 2014
Cristina Eisenberg was the Keynote Speaker at Adirondack Habitat Awareness Day 2014
Wolves powerpointTrophic Cascades & the Balance of Nature
Wolves, Dogs and People
Above, We do Presentations at Schools & other Public venues

Dire wolf, by Mark Hallet

Dire wolf, by Mark Hallett, . The Dire wolf was common throughout North America, when the Eurasian gray wolf crossed the Bering Land Bridge about 250,000 years ago.  The dire wolf went extinct about 8,000 years ago, partly due to competition with the smaller, swifter gray wolf, and partly because of the pressure placed on large megafauna by human hunter-gatherers, who first crossed the  Land Bridge about 15,000 years ago.

David Mech on ADK Wolf Reintroduction
Keeping Track
David Mech on ADK Wolf Reintroduction

and why you should think before getting a wolf hybrid!

The Bloody Sire By Robinson Jeffers

It is not bad. Let them play.
Let the guns bark and the bombing-plane
Speak his prodigious blasphemies.
It is not bad, it is high time,
Stark violence is still the sire of all the world’s values.

What but the wolf’s tooth whittled so fine
The fleet limbs of the antelope?
What but fear winged the birds, and hunger
Jewelled with such eyes the great goshawk’s head?
Violence has been the sire of all the world’s values.

Who would remember Helen’s face
Lacking the terrible halo of spears?
Who formed Christ but Herod and Caesar,
The cruel and bloody victories of Caesar?
Violence, the bloody sire of all the world’s values.

Never weep, let them play,
Old violence is not too old to beget new values.

Steve with Cree and Zeebie, August 2011Cree howling on the wolf walkListening to Zeebie respond
Steve helps Cree & Zeebie shed winter coats, left, Cree howling in the meadow, center, and listening to Zeebie's response
Come meet our Ambassador Bears & Learn all about Bears

Coyote. Coywolf


Gray Fox Arctic Fox
Bobcat Lynx Moose
White Tail Deer
Opossum Porcupine Fisher American Marten
Beaver Bald
Osprey Adirondack Loons
Ravens Crows & Wolves
Release of Rehabbed Animals
Learn About Adirondack & Ambassador Wildlife
Critter Cams & Favorite Videos
History of Cree & the Adirondack Wildlife Refuge
Eurasian Eagle Owl
Great Horned

Great Gray Owl

Saw Whet Owl Barn

Eared Owl


Broad Winged Hawk Swainsons Hawk Rough

Northern Harrier

Kestrel Turkey

Black Vulture

Adirondack Wildlife Refuge Donation Link



Contact Information

Adirondack Wildlife Refuge
Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehabilitation Center
Steve & Wendy Hall
PO Box 555, 977 Springfield Road, Wilmington, NY 12997
Toll Free: 855-Wolf-Man (855-965-3626)
Cell Phones: 914-715-7620 or 914-772-5983
Office Phone: 518-946-1197 or 518-946-2428
Fax: 518-536-9015
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